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Oggetto:

GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY

Oggetto:

GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY

Oggetto:

Anno accademico 2022/2023

Codice attività didattica
BIO0173
Docenti
Prof.ssa Carola Eva (Titolare del corso)
Dott.ssa Ilaria Bertocchi (Titolare del corso)
Prof. Carlo Nebbia (Titolare del corso)
Prof.ssa Silvia De Francia (Titolare del corso)
Corso di studio
Laurea Triennale in Biotecnologie
Anno
3° anno
Periodo
Primo semestre
Tipologia
Caratterizzante
Crediti/Valenza
8
SSD attività didattica
BIO/14 - farmacologia
VET/07 - farmacologia e tossicologia veterinaria
Erogazione
Mista
Lingua
Inglese
Frequenza
Obbligatoria
Tipologia esame
Scritto
Tipologia unità didattica
corso
Prerequisiti
Good knowledge of the basic concepts of biology, physiology and chemistry
Oggetto:

Sommario insegnamento

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Obiettivi formativi

Pharmacology
Learning of the general principles of pharmacodynamics and analysis of the main neurotransmitter systems.


Toxicology
To provide fundamental notions related to the study of the basic principles of toxicology and the mechanisms of toxic action of xenobiotics. At the end of the module, knowledge related to general toxicology will have been developed, also with a view to sex and gender-specific perspective. The training objective will also be the development of useful skills for searching information on compounds on the main databases available online. Another objective to be acquired, the ability of working in a team.

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Risultati dell'apprendimento attesi

Pharmacology

At the end of the course the student acquires the fundamental mechanisms that regulate cellular pharmacology; the main factors responsible for variability in drug response; mechanism of action of drugs on different neurotransmitter systems.

Toxicology

At the end of the course the student acquires knowledge useful for the integrated understanding of the phenomena at biochemical, cellular, molecular, pathophysiological level that underlie the toxicity of a drug or a xenobiotic one; it includes the ways in which a toxic compound can come into contact with biological material, the effects of certain organs and systems following exposure, as a cause of both acute and chronic diseases. It also achieves a scientific preparation useful for dealing with issues related to the risk assessment from exposure to chemical agents. 

In addition, the course aims to provide students with: 

1) Ability to apply knowledge and understanding of the contents related to general toxicology in the preparation of group work.

3) Communication skills during the exhibition of group work.

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Programma

Pharmacology program

Prof. Carola Eva, Dr. Ilaria Bertocchi

Generality

Cellular and molecular pharmacology

Ligand receptor binding. Drug affinity, potency, selectivity and intrinsic activity. Binding kinetic. 

Agonists, partial agonists, inverse agonists, antagonists. Dose response curves, ED50, LD50, therapeutic index, certain safety factor.

Main targets of drug action: G-protein coupled receptors, channel receptors (nicotinic receptors, GABA receptors, glutamate receptors), tyrosine kinase receptors, intracellular receptors, tranporters, pumps.

Pharmacology of the main neurotransmission systems: acethylcholine, catecolamines, serotonin, excitatory and inhibitory aminoacids, biological peptides. 

Drug abuse

Toxicology program

Prof. Carlo Nebbia

Routes of exposure / administration

Absorption mode

Bioavailability and main pharmacokinetic parameters

Notes on the models of mono- and bi-compartmental kinetics

biotransformations

Factors that modulate the expression and activity of biotransformative enzymes, with particular regard to induction, inhibition and genetic polymorphisms

Concept and examples of bioactivation

Notes on the excretion of xenobiotics

Prof.ssa Silvia De Francia 

Principles of general toxicology: definitions and aims of Toxicology, bases for the general classification of a toxic effect

Chiral compounds. Distomer and eutomer. Racemic mixtures.

Toxicology of solids. Elements characterizing the toxicity of solids.

Mechanisms of cell damage. Analysis of some of the investigative tools available to the toxicologist.

Cell death: apoptosis and necrosis; morphological, biochemical and molecular aspects. Test to assess apoptotic cell death.

Genotoxicity: main mutational events and their pathological consequences, genotoxicity test.

Carcinogenesis: characteristics of the carcinogenic process, classification of carcinogens (initiators, promoters, co-carcinogens, genotoxic carcinogens). Carcinogenicity test.

Biomarkers. Assessment of the toxicological risk and the safety of use of drugs and xenobiotics

Toxic responses of the reproductive cycle: principles of developmental toxicity, nature of toxic effects and mechanisms of action.

Use of transgenic models for the study of toxic substances: endocrine disruptors (EDCs).

Sex and Gender toxicology, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

Oggetto:

Modalità di insegnamento

The course has a value of 8 credits divided into 4 ECTS of Pharmacology and 4 ECTS of Toxicology. It consists of 62 hours of frontal lessons. Attendance at lessons is strongly recommended

The Pharmacology module of Prof. Eva C. and Dr.Bertocchi I.(4CFU) consists of 32 hours.

The Toxicology module of Dr. De Francia S. (2CFU) consists of 16 hours.

The Toxicology module of Prof. Nebbia C. (2CFU) consists of 16 hours.

The course is taught in English through frontal lesson. Given the current pandemic situation, the remote mode (Webex) is ensured throughout the academic year. Students for this purpose will receive a webex meeting invitation via email.

 

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Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento

The exam takes place in written form. 

The final mark is given by the weighted average with respect to the credits of each module.

The written exam will consist of open and / or closed questions for each of the parts dealt with by the different Professors. You pass the exam only if you pass in each of the three parts.

The methods of examination  may be subject to variations based on the limitations imposed by the current health crisis. In any case, the remote mode through webex or moodle platformswill be ensured throughout the academic year.

Testi consigliati e bibliografia

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Recommended texts and bibliography: didactic material provided by the teachers.

VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY -Idelson-Gnocchi

MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR TOXICOLOGY - Giorgio Cantelli Forti, Corrado L. Galli, Patrizia Hrelia (UTET)

ELEMENTS OF TOXICOLOGY -Casarett & Doull - edited by Hrelia P and Cantelli Forti G, Ambrosiana Publishing House, Milan

GENERAL AND MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY - Francesco Clementi, Guido Fumagalli, ED: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2015

FARMACOLOGIA Principi di base e applicazioni terapeutiche - Francesco Rossi, Vincenzo Cuomo, Carlo Riccardi et al. Editore Minerva Medica



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Note

The methods of carrying out the teaching activity may be subject to variations based on the limitations imposed by the current health crisis. In any case, the remote mode is ensured throughout the academic year 

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Moduli didattici

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